A citation is a reference to a published or unpublished source of information. It is an abbreviated alphanumeric expression embedded in the bibliographic reference section of a work. The purpose of the citation is to refrain from plagiarism and to attribute unoriginal work or ideas to the correct sources. It enables a reader to have a clear idea of the strength and the validity of the information used.
There are different styles to cite a work. Some of which are APA, MLA, Chicago, Turabian, Oxford, Harvard, etc. Various institutions and instructors have widely used the Modern Language Association or the MLA style for nearly half a century. Let’s look at the intricacies of MLA citation and referencing.
The Modern Language Association Style or MLA is used to cite sources of literature, language, liberal arts, and other subjects pertaining to the branch of humanities. The style provides the readers with a cross-referencing system that enables them to locate the publication details of a source.
As new forms of online publications received acceptance in an academic setting, numerous questions regarding proper citation remain unanswered. Many people ask “Is it possible to cite a blog in the MLA style?” Of course, a blog can be cited using the MLA style without the hassle.
Let’s look at the steps to cite a blog as per the MLA style:
Author’s last name, first name. “Title of the post.” Blog name, Publisher (include this information if it is different than the blog site name), Publishing date of the blog post, Link of the post (omit http:// or https://)
Example: Johnson, Paul. “10 tips to be an expert of online dating”. Stellar posts, 17th April 2016, www.sitename.com/
In modern days, most people read e-books on a personal device or computer. Students tend to collect relevant information on a topic from an e-book.
To cite an e-book in the MLA format, follow the below structure:
Last name of the author, First name. Book Title. City of Publication: Publisher, Year of publication. Series. Medium.
Example: Mitchell, John. Vampire. Mineola: Penguin Publications, 2010. Kindle Edition.Berger, John. The Development of cells: Dover Publications, 2000. EPUB.
One can simply create a page header format in the MLA style. It includes the author’s last name and the page number on the right margin. It can be set up on a common word processing programs in a few steps.
The steps are as follows:
Let us look at the ways to cite a newspaper in the MLA referencing style:
Last Name, First Name. “Article Title”. Newspaper Title [city] Date Month Year published: Page(s). Print.
Example: Jonathan, Mike. “Drinks that promise energy, but Experts say there is no proof.” The New York Times 14th Jan 2016: 1. Print.
Last name, first name. “Article Title”. Newspaper Title Date Month Year Published: Page (s). Website Title. Web. Date Month Year Accessed.
Huber, Martha. “A desperate call to action”. New York Post N.p., 14th April. 2018. Web. 1 Jan.2019.
To cite a book via MLA citation generator, be sure to collect the following bibliographic essentials: names of author, other contributors such as translators or editors, the title of the book, book editions, date of publication, the publisher and pagination.
Last name, First name. Title of the Book. City of publication, Publisher, Publication Date.
Mitchell, Susan. Anguish. Penguin, 1988.
If multiple authors write a book, place them in the way they are presented in the book.
Example: Mitchell, Nelson, Liv Smith. A guide to media and publications. Dover and Bacon, 2010.
List the work alphabetically by the title. Ignore articles like “a, an, and the”. For each entry by the same author, use three hyphens and a period.
Example:Jonathan, Mayer P. Young and New Empire. St. George’s, 1998.
There are various citation tools to cite an online journal in MLA format. BibMe, StyleWizard, and Easy Bib are some of these online tools used to cite an online journal in MLA.
Collect the name of the author, the title of the journal, the names of any contributors to the article, the version of the journal (if applicable), any numbers (such as volume or issue number associated with the journal), and the publication date. Also get your hands on the page number, the name of the database on which the article was found, and the URL or DOI where the article can be found.
Last Name, First Name. “Article Title.” Journal Title Series Volume. Issue (Year Published): Pages. Database Name. Web. Date Month Year Accessed.
Example: Jonathan, Lisa. “Vimeo, ‘Alcohol abuse Videos’ and drugs guide.” Drugs: Principles, policy, abuse, prevention 18.3 (2018): 110-115. Curriculum Search complete. Web. 4 April. 2018.
Follow the guidelines to cite a magazine in MLA referencing style:
Gather essential details to cite a magazine in MLA format: the name of the author, the title of the article, the title of the magazine, the name of any other contributors to the article. Also, find the version of the magazine, any number such as volume or issue number, publication date, the location such as the page number or the page range, the database name on which the magazine article was found, the URL or DOI if the article was found online.
To cite a magazine in print in MLA:
Last Name, First Name. “Article Title.” Magazine Title. Date Month Year Published: Page(s). Print.
Example:Rothbart, Lisa. “How I survived an Unfortunate Mishap.” Terrible Accidents Sept. 2010: 109-12. Print.
To cite a magazine online in MLA:
Last name, First Name. “Article Title.” Magazine Title. Date Month Year Published. Database Name Web. Data Month Year Accessed.
Example:Nasar, John. “Supreme Manifestation”. The New Yorker. 9 Jan 2012. Web. 14th April 2015.
Sometimes, formatting can become quite challenging and tricky. It requires considerable time and patience. Using citation tools is necessary to ease your woes. Here’s a list of some best software used for generating MLA citations:
A dissertation is a complete, stand-alone work written under the auspices of an institution. To cite a dissertation execute the following steps:
It is essential to gather essential information to cite the dissertation as per the MLA referencing style. Include the following information: name of the author, title of the dissertation, date of publication, institution granting the degree, description of the work (optional), database and URL if accessed through a database or repository.
To cite a dissertation in the basic format:
Mayer, Mike. An opera of the rivals. 2011. Northwestern U, PhD dissertation.
To cite a dissertation acquired through an online repository:
Mayer, Mike. An opera of the rivals. 2011. Northwestern U, PhD.
To cite a book chapter in MLA follow the essential guidelines:
Last name, First name. “Section Title”. Anthology/book. Ed. First name. Last name. City: Publisher, Year Published. Page(s). Print.
Example:Haydon, Liz: “A trip to The Haunted House.” A Book of Haunted Stories. New York: Appleton, 1987. 15-30. Print.
Last Name, First Name. “Section Title.” Anthology/Book. Ed. First Name. Last Name. City: Publisher, Year Published. Pages. Website Title. Web. Date Month Year Accessed.
Example: Haydon, Liz: “A trip to The Haunted House.” A Book of Haunted Stories. New York: Appleton, 1987. Google books. Web. 17th April 2016.
To cite a government publication in MLA format, you can follow the following guidelines:
Last Name, First Name (or) Government Department. Title of Document. Location:Publisher, Year Published. Print.
Example:Fitzgerald, Gabrielle. Late Night Patrolling Incidents Context in Canadian cities. Ottawa: Statistics Europe, 2012. Print.
Note to remember:
Cite the author if identified. Otherwise, start with the name of the national government, followed by the agency (including any subdivision or agencies) that serves as the organisational author.
Last Name, First name (or) Government Department. Title of the Document. City:Publisher, Year published. Library database (if available).Web. Date accessed.
Example:Europe. Environment Europe. Transportation facilities. Average emission performance of 2010 model year heavy duty-vehicles. Ottawa: Environment Europe. Web. 17 Feb. 2017.
To reduce drudgery and format documents, be it books, journals, magazines, articles in print or online in MLA referencing style, you can use the following online MLA reference generator tools for free:
Citing references accurately is crucial to compose a remarkable assignment. To most students, it may seem like a strenuous and daunting affair. Understand the guidelines, comprehend the format, remember them and follow the rules to compose an exceptional assignment. Make citing as easy as eating a pie and fetch excellent grades in your next assignment.
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