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APA format is the official style of the American Psychological Association. And that’s where the name came from (no points for guessing). This style is commonly used to cite sources in subject areas such as psychology, education, and the social sciences.
In 2010, the American Psychological Association launched the sixth and latest edition of its publication manual. This manual explores what APA style is all about and how it works. In this blog, we will answer the most frequently asked questions related to the APA style.
When you are formatting your assignment or any document in the APA style, you need to create a reference list. This list should contain all the recoverable resources cited in the document. You do not need to cite personal communication (interview, survey data, etc.) as they do not provide recoverable data.
There’s no APA bibliography or “Works Cited” page in APA style formatting. Instead, you need to list the references in a fresh page titled “Reference.” The title should be centered in a regular font without any underline or bolding. If there's only one reference in the list, the title should be named "Reference."
The references are generally double-space, but your instructor can direct you to follow a different measurement for spacing. The references need to be listed alphabetically by the first listed author’s name. Each of the references should be formatted with a hanging indent. It means the first line of each reference entry needs to be aligned with the left margin, and the subsequent line should have the hanging indent of 1.27 cm or 0.5 inches.
Citing a blog post is as important as citing a book. Thankfully, there are plenty of APA citation maker tools that can help you cite an entire blog in no time. Modernise.info has its own APA citation generator that you can use for free to cite your document and generate references with ease. Here’s how to use it:
This is both convenient and useful, and saves a lot of time. For more information on citing a blog, you can visit APA Style Blog (https://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2016/04/how-to-cite-a-blog-post-in-apa-style.html).
Contrary to most APA style references, you don’t need to know the author’s name while writing the references for court cases. However, you do need to take care of three basic elements for an APA style reference for the court cases.
The reference for a court case looks something like this:
Name v. Name, Volume Source Page (Court Date)
For example, Lessard v. Schmidt, 349 F. Supp. 1078 (E.D. Wis. 1972)
In order to cite the reference in the text, you need to write the case name in italics with the year. Here’s an example:
Lessard v. Schmidt (1972)
While doing the APA referencing of an edited book, you need to use the following template:
Author Surname, Author First Initial. (Year of publication). Title (p. Pages Used). City: Publisher.
Wu, D. (1994). Romanticism – An Anthology (2nd ed., p. 449). Oxford: Blackwell.
Note: The title should be in italics.
For APA in-text citation of an edited book, you should use the following part right after the reference or quote to the source in the document.
(Author Surname, Year Published)
E.g. (Wu, 1994)
The APA referencing for a magazine also requires you to gather the following information:
If you have retrieved it from a website, you also need to provide the website URL. The APA reference for a magazine is created using the following template:
Author Surname, Author First Initial. (Year Published). Title. Publication Title, (Issue number), Pages Used. Retrieved from http://Website URL
Here is an example:
Allwood, J. (2014). Should we design for deconstruction. Construction Professional, 27-28.
Note: The publication title should be in italics.
While doing the in-text citation for a magazine, you should simply mention the source according to the following template after the reference or quote to the source in your document.
(Author Surname, Year Published)
Use the following structure to cite a website reference in your document:
Author surname, Author First Initial. (Year, month date of publication). Article title. Retrieved from URL
Here’s an example:
Cain, K. (2012, June 29). The Negative effects of Facebook on communication. Social Media Today RSS. Retrieved from http://socialmediatoday.com
Note: Use italics for the article title
While doing the in-text citation, you should put the author surname and the year of publication in the first bracket after the reference or quote to the source in your document.
How to Do APA Referencing for Dissertation?
You need to gather the following information to cite a dissertation in the APA style.
Once you have these pieces of information, you can create the reference using the following structure:
Author Surname. Author First Initial. (Year Published). Title (Level). Institution Name.
Here’s an example for you:
Mahmudur Rahman, K. (2013). GOVERNING THROUGH COERCION AND CONSENT: THE CASE OF THE READY-MADE GARMENTS INDUSTRY IN BANGLADESH (PhD). University of Queensland.
Note: The title of the dissertation needs to be in italics.
If you are using a dissertation from the internet, you need to put the website URL instead of the institution’s name.
Chooprayoon, V. (2011). A study of factors influencing the adoption of E-Commerce technology in small and medium enterprises (SMES) in the kingdom of Thailand. (PhD Thesis, Murdoch University). Retrieved from http://researchrepository.murdoch.edu.au/5802/
Books are the most common sources of information that you might have to cite while preparing an academic paper. In order to prepare the reference for books you need to use the following template:
Author surname, Author First Initial. (Year Published). Title (p. Pages used). City: Publisher.
Here’s an example:
Finney, J. (1970). Time and again. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.
Government publications are the most reliable sources of data. Use this following template to create references for government publication:
Author surname, Author First Initial. (Year Published). Title (p. Pages used). City: Publisher
Here is an example:
Department of Education, Training and Employment. (2014). Standard of Practice (p. 5). Queensland.
Note: The title must be in italics.
The ideal referencing format for a newspaper in APA style looks like this:
Author Surname, Author First Initial. (Year Published). Title. Publication Title, p. Pages Used. Retrieved from http://Website URL
You can create referencing for the newspaper using APA reference generators like Modernise.info and others. At Modernise.info, you need these following pieces of information to get started.
Once you have filled this information in the dedicated fields, you need to click on the “Generate Newspaper Reference” button to get the reference done in the APA format.
If you need to cite a chapter in the APA format, you need to use this following structure:
Author Surname, Author First Initial. (Year). Title of chapter. In Editor (Ed.), Title of the book/anthology (pp. Pages). City, State: Publisher
Here’s an example:
Clason, G. S. (2008). The tale of seven remedies for a lean purse. The richest man in Babylon (pp. 23-25). Charleston, SC: BN Publishing.
Note: The title of the book or anthology should be in italics.
If you are dealing with the online version of the book chapter, you can replace the place of publication and publisher with the website URL. Here’s the example:
Bellow, S. (1999). A silver dish. In J. Updike & K. Kenison (Eds.), The best American short stories of the century. Retrieved from http://books.google.com
If you need to cite a preface, introduction, foreword, or afterword in APA style, you need to use this following structure:
Author Surname, Author First Initial. (Year). [Section type]. In Editor (Ed.), Title of the book/anthology (pp. Pages). City, State: Publisher.
Here’s an example:
Doe, J. (1997). Foreward. D. Jones, The sunniest day yet (p. 2). New York: Books International.
Citing an e-book is slightly different than citing a printed book. To do APA referencing for an e-book, you need to comply with the following structure:
Author Surname, Author First Initial. (Year). Title. Retrieved from URL or DOI
Here is an example for better understanding:
ÖZKAHRAMAN, PhD RN, Ş., & YILDIRIM, PhD RN, B. (2011). An Overview of Critical Thinking in Nursing and Education (1st ed., pp. 192, 193). Retrieved from http://www.aijcrnet.com/journals/Vol_1_No_2_September_2011/25
Note: DOI is the digital object identifier, an assigned number that allows the content to connect to its location of the internet. And the title needs to be in italics.
If you want to cite a printed journal in the APA style, you must follow the structure below:
Author Surname, Author First Initial. (Year of publication). Article title. Journal Name, Volume(Issue), pp. Pages.
Here’s an example:
Jacoby, W. G. (1994). Public attitudes toward government spending. American Journal of Political Science, 38(2), 336-361.
Note: The journal name and its volume number must be in italics.
If you need to cite a patent that’s retrieved online, you need to use the following template:
Author Surname, Author First Initial. (The year of publication). Patent number. Retrieved from website URL
Here is an example of such referencing.
Bevitt, A. J. (2018). Australian Patent No. AU 2018100960. Retrieved from http://pericles.ipaustralia.gov.au/ols/auspat/applicationDetails.do?applicationNo=2018100960
Referencing for conference proceeding must comply with the following structure:Author Surname, Author First Initial. (year of publication). Title of the paper. Editors of Conference proceedings, Title of the conference proceedings, place of publication. Here’s an example that can clarify the structure for you.
Hasan, H., Harijan, K., Ahmed, V., & Ahmed, G. (2013). Solutions for Energy Crisis in Pakistan. In Solutions for Energy Crisis in Pakistan. Islamabad.
When you are dealing with a journal online, the APA referencing needs to use the following template:
Author Surname. Author First Initial. (Year of publication). Article title. Journal Name, Volume(Issue), pp. Page(s). doi:# or Retrieved from URL
Take a look at this example:
Fearon, J. D., & Laitin, D. D. (2003). Ethnicity, Insurgency, and Civil War. American Political Science Review, 97(01), 75. doi: 10.1017/S0003055403000534
The structure works for you if you need to cite a journal on a database in the APA format. Just remember to put the journal name and its volume no. in italics.
While doing the referencing for an Act, you need to follow the template given below: Short Title of Act Year (Jurisdiction abbreviation) section number.subdivision (country abbreviation)
Use this following example for clarity:
Foreign Influence Transparency Scheme Act 2018 (Cth) s. 60.1 (Austl.).
If you are creating the reference for a bill, you need to follow this structure:
Short Title of the Bill Year (Jurisdiction abbreviation) (Country abbreviation)
Note: No italics for the title or year.
Here’s an example:
Disability Services Safeguards Bill 2018 (Vic) (Austl.).
The format for referencing in APA for cases is slightly different from the previous two. Such referencing follows this format:
Popular Title of Case (Year) Volume number Reporter abbreviation First page number (Country abbreviation).
Check out this example:
Minister for Immigration and Border Protection v Kumar (2017) 260 CLR 367 (Austl.).
If you are mentioning a program, you should include the version number of the software as well. Say, you have done a survey where you asked the participants to send their responses in a Microsoft Word file. It is necessary to mention which version of the software was used, such as the MS office professional 2010.
Now, coming to the referencing part, you must provide a reference for specialised software if you have mentioned it in the content. Here is the ideal APA style format for referencing a program (or software).
Surname of the proprietor of the software, First initial of the proprietor. (Year of publication). Title of the software [description of the item]. Place: Publisher
Check out this example:
Esolang, A. N. (2014). Obscure Reference Generator [Computer software]. Washington, DC: E & K Press.
You may have already found different APA format examples for the referencing of different sources of information. If you need more insights about APA referencing, here is a sample that you should check out.
The following sample has a title page, sample assignment page and the references list in the APA format. You can use this as a template for your next assignment if you want.
Full Title of Research Paper Student’s Name Course Name (e.g. Econ 101) Professor’s Name April 6, 2019
Full Title of Research Paper
Start your first paragraph of the research paper with an indent of 0.5 inches in the left. Refrain from using the heading “Introduction” at the beginning of the paper. The first sentence should immediately follow the title.
Incorporate the research into the content as you proceed. You can use a direct quote that "uses the original source by word for word" (author of the quotation, year of publication, page number). For the rest of the content, you can derive information from your research and put them in your own words. If you are paraphrasing the information, you should also use in-text citations for that (Author Surname, Year). If you are using information from a website that has no author, you should still cite the source (Website name, Year).
You need to list all the sources in a list format under the title “References” at the end of the paper. The References page should always be on a fresh page and must be included in every research paper or assignment.
Author Surname, Author First Initial. (Year). Title of the source. Place: Publisher Author Surname, Author First Initial. (Year). Title of the source that is available online. Retrieved from the location (Website URL or DOI)
The key to accurate citation and references is choosing the perfect referencing generator. You can find plenty of online APA referencing generators. However, it is suggested that you compare the features offered by these online tools and then choose the final one. The referencing generator at Modernise.info has some amazing features that you can explore.
Most referencing generators including the one at Modernise.info have the option to cite different sources of information in APA. Whether it is a book, a newspaper, a blog, a website, a journal or even a government publication – most online citation generators have separate segments for the job. When you select your preferred APA format citation generator, you need to follow the steps below for accurate results.
Step 1: Choose the citation style
Since you will be looking for referencing in the APA 6th edition format, you should choose APA from the choices of referencing style. Use the one at Modernise.info, and you will get the option to cite in MLA, Chicago or Turabian, Oxford, Harvard, and Vancouver referencing styles.
Step 2: Select the type of source:
In this step, you need to select the type of information source you want to cite. Unless you choose the right type before moving the next step, you are going to receive incorrect results. Select the right type of source (book, journal, newspaper, or government publication) and proceed.
Step 3: Fill in the form accurately:
For each type of source, you will need different types of details. However, the basic format for APA referencing remains somewhat same. The major details you need to fill include the name of the author, the date of publication, the title of the source material, the page numbers, and the location of the source. You may need to provide additional information depending on the source type.
Step 4: Generate the references:
Once you fill the form properly, you need to submit the details by clicking a dedicated button. By clicking on the button, you will receive the proper references of the source in APA style. You should generate all the references required in your document and create the reference list as per the APA format.
That’s how you can prepare accurate citations with APA citation generator. However, if you have other issues with your assignment, there’s a solution for you.
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